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The Durkan Group

Applied Nanoscience & Nanoscale Engineering

Studying at Cambridge




C. Durkan, "Nanotechnology - what's all the fuss about?"  In preparation, due for completion Autumn 2014
C. Durkan, "Current at the nanoscale - an introduction to nanoelectronics" published in January 2008, Imperial College Press.  Second Edition in print, available for purchase since November 2013.
C. Durkan, "Electricity without the tears", Kindle e-book on secondary school electricity, as an introduction to basic electrical principles, aimed at GCSE & A-level.

Book Chapters

Y. Ivry, C. Durkan, D. P. Chu & J. F. Scott, "How do Ferroic domains scale down?  The crystal story". In press, Springer (2014)

Journal Articles

Under preparation/review:

83.  C. Durkan, "The effects of current flow through metallic nanowires", under preparation

82.  N. Wang, P. Salino, D. Puckett, I.R. Collins, I. Stocker & C. Durkan, "Multi-functional property mapping of oil-bearing chalk", under preparation

81.  N. Wang, P. Salino, D. Puckett, I. R. Collins, I. Stocker & C. Durkan, "Nanometer-scale investigations into oil-rich chalk formations", under preparation



80.  C. Durkan, J. A. Garcia-Melendrez & L. Ding, "On the manipulation of ferroelectric and ferroelastic domains at the nanoscale", Journal of electronic materials, In Press (2015)


79.  C. Durkan, N. Wang "Nanometre-scale investigations by atomic force microscopy into the effect of different treatments on the surface structure of hair ", International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 36, 598 (2014)
78.  C. Durkan & Q. Zhang, "Towards reproducible, scalable molecular electronic devices", Applied Physics Letters, 105, 083504 (2014)
77.  Y. Ivry, N. Wang & C. Durkan, "High-frequency programmable acoustic wave device realized through ferroelectric domain engineering", Applied Physics Letters 104 133505 (2014)
76.  Y. Ivry, C. Durkan, D. Chu & J. F. Scott, "Nano-domain pinning in ferroelastic-ferroelectrics by extended structural defects", Advanced Functional Materials (2014) DOI: 10.1002/adfm.201304268


75.  L. Ding & C. Durkan, "Controllable nanodomain defects in ferroeelctric/ferroelastic biferroic thin films", Proceedings of IEEE-Nano conference, 110-113 (2013) 
74.  A. Garcia-Melendrez & C. Durkan, "Reversible nanoscale switching of polytwin orientation in a ferroelectric thin film induced by a local electric fieldAppl. Phys. Lett, 103 092904 (2013)
73. C. Rawlings & C. Durkan, "The Inverse Problem in Magnetic Force Microscopy-inferring sample magnetization from MFM images", Nanotechnology, 24 305705 (2013) Cover image & featured article in print magazine, 2 August 2013
72.  C. J. Forman, N. Wang, Z-Y. Yang, C. Durkan & P. D. Barker, "Probing the location of displayed cytochrome b562 on Amyloid by Scanning Tunneling MicroscopyNanotechnology 24 175102 (2013)


71. Y. Ivry, J. F. Scott, E. K. H. Salje & C. Durkan, "Nucleation, growth & control of ferroelectric-ferroelastic domains in thin polycrystalline films", Physical Review B, 86, 205428 (2012)
70.  C. Rawlings & C. Durkan, "Calibration of cantilevers of arbitrary shape using the phase signal in an atomic force microscope", Nanotechnology, 23, 485708 (2012)
69. C. Rawlings & C. Durkan, "Performing Quantitative MFM measurements on soft magnetic nanostructures", Nanotechnology,  23, 455701 (2012)
68.  H. S. J. Wong & C. Durkan, "Shifting Atomic Patterns - On the origin of the different atomic patterns of graphite surfaces observed using Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy", Nanotechnology 23, 185703 (2012)
67.  H. S. J. Wong, X. Feng, K Mullen, N. Chandrasekhar & C. Durkan, "Channel selective tunneling through a nanographene assembly", Nanotechnology, 23, 095601 (2012)
66.  H. S. J. Wong, X. Feng,  Z. Y. Yang, K Mullen, N. Chandrasekhar & C. Durkan, "Altering the ordering and disordering of a triangular nanographene at room temperature Nanotechnology, 23, 015606 (2012, published online 8 December 2011)
65.  M. A. Khaderbad, Y. Choi, P. V. Hiralal, A. Aziz, N. Wang, C. Durkan, P. Thiruvenkatanathan, G. A. J. Amaratunga, V. Ramgopal Rao & A. A. Seshia, "Fabrication and electromechanical characterisation of laterally suspended zinc oxide nanowires",  Nanotechnology, 23, 025501 (2012, published online 14 Dec 2011)
64.  H. S. Wong, S. C. Tan, N. Wang & C. Durkan, "Novel Hydrothermally-Grown ZnO Nanowire Tips for Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy and Optoelectronics Applications", Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 12, 2394 (2012)


63.  Y. Ivry, D. P. Chu, J. F. Scott, E. K. H. Salje  & C. Durkan, "Unexpected Controllable pair structure in ferroelectric nano-domains" Nano letters, 11, 4619 (2011)
62.  H. S. J. Wong & C. Durkan, "Imaging confined Charge density oscillations in graphite at room temperature" Physical Review B, 84, 085435 (2011)
61.  Y. Ivry, D. P. Chu, J. F. Scott & C. Durkan, "Domains beyond the grain boundary", Advanced Functional Materials 21, 1827 (2011)
60.  H. S. Wong & C. Durkan,"Decoupling of Surface Graphene Layer on Graphite"  Fourth ICCEE, 433 (2011)


59.  C. Rawlings, S. Weigelt, B. Hong, C. H. W. Barnes, M. E. Welland & C. Durkan, "Correlation between shape and stray field in indented-square nanomagnets - an experimental and theoretical study", Phys. Rev. B. 82 085404 (2010)
58.  C. Durkan, Y. Ivry & D. P. Chu, Appl. Phys. Lett, "Response to comment on Nanometre resolution piezo-response force microscopy to study deep submicron ferroelectric and ferroelastic domains", Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 046101 (2010)
57.  Y. Ivry, N. Wang, D. P. Chu & C. Durkan, "90o domain relaxation in thin ferroelectric/ferroelastic films", Phys Rev B, 81, 174118 (2010)
56.  Y. Ivry, D. P. Chu, J. F. Scott & C. Durkan, "Flux-closure Vortex-like Domain Structures in a ferroelectric thin film", Phys. Rev. Lett., 104, 207602 (2010)
55.  S. Jejurikar, D. Casterman, P. B. Pillai, O. Petrenko, M. M. deSouza, A. Tahroui, C. Durkan & W. I. Milne, "Anomalous n-type electrical behaviour of Pd contacted CNTFET fabricated on small diameter nanotube", Nanotechnology,  (2010) 21 215202 (2010)
54.  Z. Y. Yang, C. Durkan, "Edge and terrace structure of CoTPP on Au(111) investigated by Ultra-High Vacuum Scanning Tunneling Microscopy at Room Temperature" Surface Science, 604, 660 (2010)
53.  Y. Ivry, D. P. Chu & C. Durkan, "Bundles of Polytwins as Meta-Elastic Domains in the Thin Polycrystalline Simple Multi-Ferroic System PZT", Nanotechnology, 21, 065702 (2010)
52.  H. S. Wong & C. Durkan, "Unravelling the Rotational Disorder of Graphene Layers in Graphite ", Phys. Rev. B, 81, 045403 (2010)
51.  M. Ahmad et al. WCE2010 preface 2, 1 (2010)
50. A. M. Korsunsky et al, WCE2010 preface 1, 1 (2010)


49.  H. S. W. Wong, C. Durkan & N. Chandrasekhar, "Tailoring the local interaction between graphene layers in graphite at the atomic scale and above using scanning tunnelling microscopy”, ACS Nano, 3 (11), 3455 (2009)
48.  Y. Ivry, D. P. Chu & C. Durkan, “Nanometer Resolution Piezo-Response Force Microscopy to Study Deep Submicron Ferroelectric and Ferroelastic Domains”, Applied Physics Letters, 94, 162903 (2009)
47.  N. Wang, K. Yano, C. Durkan, M. E. Welland, Y. Zhang, H. E. Unalan, M. Mann, K. B. K. Teo, G. A. J. Amaratunga & .  W. I. Milne, "Direct measurement of electron transport through helical poly (ethyl propiolate) nanorods wired into gaps in single walled carbon nanotubes", Nanotechnology, 20, 105201 (2009)
46.  D. Casterman, M. M. De Souza, A. Tahraoui, C. Durkan & W. I. Milne, “Role of hybridisation on the Schottky barrier height of carbon nanotube FETs”, Phys. Rev. B, 79, 125407 (2009)


45.  K. Yano, C. Durkan & M. E. Welland, "Direct measurement of electron transport through single conducting polymer molecule wired into gaps in single walled carbon nanotubes", 12th Asian Pacific Confederation of Chemical Engineering Congress (2008)
44.     P. A. Midgley, C. Durkan, “The frontiers of microscopy - smaller, faster, sharper “ Materials today, Microscopy special issue, 8 (2008)
43.     J. H. Ransley, C. Durkan & A. A. Seshia, "Silicon-based depletion layer actuator", Appl. Phys. Lett., 92, 184103 (2008)


42.     J. H. T. RansleyC. Durkan, & A.A. Seshia, “A depletion layer actuator “, Proceedings of Transducers 2007, (2007)
41.     F. O. Hadeed & C. Durkan,   “Controlled fabrication of 1-2 nm nanogaps by electromigration in Au and Au/Pd nanowires“, Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 123120 (2007)
40.     W. T. Pong, J. Bendall & C. Durkan, "Observation & investigation of graphite superlattice boundaries by STM", Surf. Sci., 601, 498 (2007)

39.     Wing Tat Pong, Colm Durkan, Hongwei Li & Wolfgang Harneit "Strategies for the deposition of free radical organic molecules for scanning-probe microscopy experiments", J. Scann. Probe Microsc., 1, 55 (2006)


38.     W. T. Pong, C. Durkan, "Construction of a UHV-STM for atomic-level characterisation of magnetic surfaces", Proceedings of the 5th International Conference of the European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology, 1, 241 (2005)
37.     W. T. PongC. DurkanA review & outlook for an anomaly of scanning tunneling microscopy - superlattices on Graphite, J. Phys. D. Applied Physics, 38, 329 (2005)
36.     W. T. PongC. Durkan Simple model of electronic density of states of Graphite and its application to the investigation of superlattices“, JJAP 44, 5365, (2005)
35.   W. T. Pong, J. Bendall, C. DurkanObservation of large-scale features on Graphite surfaces"  JJAP, 44, 5443 (2005)


34.     A. Gademann, I. V. Shvets & C. Durkan, “Study of polarization-dependent energy coupling between a near-field optical probe and mesoscopic metal structures”, J. Appl. Phys., 95, 3988, (2004)
33.     C. Durkan, “Detection of single electronic spins by scanning tunnelling microscopy” Contemporary Physics, 45 1, (2004)


32.     A. Gademann, C. Durkan & I. V. Shvets, “Optical impedance matching with Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy”, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys, 36, 2193 (2003)
31.     M. E. Welland, C. Durkan, M. S. M. Saifullah, J. W. Seo, R. Schlittler & G. K. Gimsewski, Science 300, 1236, (2003)


30.     C. Durkan, A. Ilie, M. S. M. Saifullah & M. E. Welland, “The mechanics of Nanosprings: stiffness and Young’s modulus of Molybdenum-based nanocrystals”, Appl. Phys. Lett., 80, 4244, (2002) 
29.     A. Ilie, C. Durkan, W. I. Milne & M. E. Welland, “Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy as a probe for local modification of carbon films”, Phys. Rev. B.  66 045412, (2002)
28.     C. Durkan & M. E. Welland, “Electronic spin detection in Molecules using Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy assisted Electron Spin Resonance”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 80, 458, (2002)


27.     D. P. Chu, B. M. McGregor, P. Migliorato, C. Durkan , M. E. Welland, K. Hasegawa & T. Shimoda, "Investigation of PZT resistance dependence on excess lead using a low-frequency small signal ac response", Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Integrated Ferreoelectrics (2001)
26.     D. P. Chu, B. M. McGregor, P. Migliorato, C. Durkan , M. E. Welland, K. Hasegawa & T. Shimoda, "Ohmic conductivity and activation energy of Pb1+y (Zr 0.3 Ti 0.7 )O3 thin films", Proceedings of the 1st International Semiconductor Technology Conference, 416, (2001)
25.     D. P. Chu, B. M. McGregor, P. Migliorato, C. Durkan , M. E. Welland, K. Hasegawa & T. Shimoda, "Temperature dependence of the ohmic conductivity and activation energy of Pb1+y (Zr 0.3 Ti 0.7 )O3 thin films", Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 518, (2001)
24.     M. Lahav, C. Durkan , R. Gabai, E. Katz, I. Willner & M. E. Welland, “Redox activation of a polyaniline-coated cantilever – an electro-driven microdevice”, Angew. Chemie. Int. Ed. 40, 4095, (2001)
23.     R. R. Schlittler, J. W. Seo, J. K. Gimzewski, C. Durkan, M. S. M. Saifullah, & M. E. Welland, “Single Crystals of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Formed by Self-Assembly”,  Science, 292, 1136 (2001)


22.     B. Weeks, C. Durkan, H. Kuramochi, M. E. Welland & T. Rayment, ”A High Pressure, High Temperature Scanning Tunnelling Microscope for catalytic studies on surfaces”, Rev. Sci. Inst. 71, 3777 (2000)
21.     C. Durkan, M. E. Welland, D. P. Chu & P. Migliorato, “Scaling of piezoelectric properties in the nanometer to micrometer scale” Electronics letters 36, 1538 (2000)
20.     T. Kalkbrenner, M. Graf, C. Durkan, J. Mlynek & V. Sandoghdar, “A high-contrast topography-free sample for near-field optical microscopy”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 1206 (2000)
19.     C. Durkan & M. E. Welland, “Investigations into local ferroelectric properties by atomic force microscopy”, Ultramicroscopy, 82, 141 (2000)
18.     C. Durkan, D. P. Chu, M. E. Welland & P. Migliorato, “Investigations into local piezoelectric properties by atomic force microscopy”, Appl. Phys. Lett., 76, 366 (2000)
17.     C. Durkan & M. E. Welland, “Size effects in the electrical resistivity of polycrystalline nanowires”, Phys. Rev. B. 61, 14215 (2000)
16.     C. Durkan & M. E. Welland, “Nanometer-scale electrical characterisation of artificial mesostructures”, Critical reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences, 25, 1-28 (2000) 
15.     C. Durkan & M. E. Welland, “Analysis of failure mechanisms of electrically stressed au nanowires”, Ultramicroscopy, 82, 125 (2000)


14.     C. Durkan, M. E. Welland, D. P. Chu & P. Migliorato, “Probing domains at the nanometer scale in piezoelectric thin films”, Phys. Rev. B. 60, 16198 (1999)
13.     C. Durkan, M. A. Schneider & M. E. Welland, “Analysis of failure mechanisms in electrically stressed gold nanowires”, J. Appl. Phys. 86, 1280, (1999)


12.  K. C. Ng et al, "Applied Physics Reviews" J. Appl. Phys. 83, 1 (1998)
11.  I. V. Shvets, C. Durkan & R. Kantor, "Optical transmission lines - Comparison between the optical and the microwave frequency ranges", Prog. Elec. Res. Symp. 421 (1998)
10.     C. Durkan & I. V. Shvets, “Reflection-mode scanning near-field optical microscopy: influence of sample type, tip shape and polarisation of light”, J. Appl. Phys. 83 (3), 1171 (1998)
9.     C. Durkan & I. V. Shvets, “Polarisation effects in reflection-mode scanning near-field optical microscopy”, J. Appl. Phys. 83 (4), 1837 (1998)


8.     C. Durkan,J. C. Lodder & I. V. Shvets, “Kerr-effect based magneto-optic imaging with sub. 100 nm resolution”, J. Appl. Phys. 81, 5109 (1997)
7.     C. Durkan, I. V. Shvets & J. C. Lodder, “Observation of magnetic domains using a reflection-mode scanning near-field optical microscope”, Appl. Phys. Lett., 70 (10), 1323 (1997)
6.     C. Durkan & I. V. Shvets, “A method for increasing shear-force detection sensitivity using uncoated fiber tips”, Appl. Opt. 36 8173 (1997)


5.     C. Durkan & I. V. Shvets, “Investigation of the physical mechanisms of shear-force imaging”, J. Appl. Phys. 80 (9), 5659 (1996)
4.     C. Durkan & I.V. Shvets, “An aperture-type reflection-mode SNOM” in Optics at the nanometer scale,  ed. M. Nieto-Vesperinas & N. Garcia (Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1996) 319, 257
3.     C. Durkan & I.V. Shvets, “Study of shear-force as a distance regulation mechanism in scanning near-field optical microscopy”, J. Appl. Phys. 79 (3), 1219 (1996)


2.     C. Durkan & I.V. Shvets, “40 nm resolution in reflection-mode SNOM with λ=685 nm”, Ultramicroscopy 61, 227, (1995)
1.     C. Durkan & I.V. Shvets, “Reflection-mode Scanning near-field optical microscope” in Photons & Local Probes, Eds. O. Marti and R. Möller, NATO ASI Series E: Applied Sciences vol. 300, (Kluwer, Dordrecht 1995).