After the Elgin Marbles worse was to come - the discovery that antique sculpture was coloured. Paint had hitherto been considered an admission of a sculpture's failure, or at least a distraction. Later surfaces became a topic for exploration. In 1936 Oppenheim coated a cup and saucer with fur. In the 1970s Penone projected photos of his face upon a cast of his face, thus peeling off and reapplying surface.
Old statues were often designed to fit in a church's niches to be viewed from one contrived angle, or were essentially reliefs. In 1920s, tribal art was the catalyst for creating sculpture conceived of in the round. The creation of public statues (a craze that peaked in 1900-14) was also influential. Lessing in Laocoon thought that poetry functioned in time, and painting in space. In-the-round sculpture distanced itself from painting by not being viewable in a single glance.
"The Elgin Marbles also contributed to the taste for dramatic combinations of solid and void. ... Caves and creases also start to appear inside modern sculpture" . Then holes appeared. Gaps in a poem draw readers into the vacuum, tempting them to complete the jigsaw. "Our life", said Bergson, "is thus spent in filling voids, which our intellect conceives under the influence, by no means intellectual, of desire and of regret" . Leaving out anecdotal detail may not be sufficient to tempt readers to fill in with details from their own experiences - they need to be coaxed inwards.
Now sculpture can not only be walked around and looked through, it can be entered. In Tate Modern, Cornelia Parker's "Cold Dark Matter: An Exploded View" comprises objects hanging from the ceiling, recreating the moment just after a shed exploded. A bright light in the centre casts shadows of the objects. Walking around, one's shadows merge with those of the work. Sculpture is no longer something for the corner of a room. It is more like architecture, something to look out from. Before they realise it, readers are "working from the inside" of a piece, looking for a way out to their everyday lives.
Some poetry begins innocuously, hardly seeming like poetry at all until gradually the reader is drawn into a surrealistic world. Sometimes poetry begins by trying to shock the reader into a personal relationship - some intimate detail that matches the readers' experiences, perhaps survivors poetry written for survivors.